Detecting adulteration of honey – 13C analysis with the LC-I

Introduction Honey is a naturally sweet substance loved by humans throughout history and is also renowned for its health benefits. Many early civilisations recognised its unique properties; in ancient Egypt, Queen Cleopatra was thought to use mixtures containing honey as part of her beauty regime. Thousands of years later, the de-mand for honey has risen significantly. Manuka honey, which is produced by honey bees that feed on the Manuka bush which grows is New Zealand and South Eastern Australia, is highly regarded in the west for its antibacterial and healing properties.